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2.Research Progress on Chemical Constituents of Anhua Dark Tea and Their Activities
4 Pharmacological activity of Anhua black tea
4.1 Weight loss and blood lipid regulation
High-dose 茯 brick tea aqueous extract can significantly inhibit fat in obese rats Increased tissue and body mass, significantly lower plasma triacylglycerol (TG) And total cholesterol (TC) levels . Pancreatic lipase is a fat hydrolysis process a key enzyme that inhibits pancreatic lipase activity and is effective in inhibiting fat. Hydrolysis and absorption for the purpose of controlling and treating obesity. More brick tea Phenolic substances have inhibitory effects on pancreatic lipase, half of the inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.81 mg/mL . One subtype of sterol regulatory element binding protein, SREBP-1c, is A key regulator of liver lipid metabolism, almost involved in all liver TG And transcription of fatty acid synthesis genes. SREBP-1c transgenic mouse fat. Fatty acid synthesis was significantly accelerated, and liver TG accumulation increased . Fatty acid Enzyme (FAS) catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids, while FAS inhibitors suppress production of hypothalamic hormone neuronal signal peptide expression, resulting in a large diet want to decline and reduce body mass. Therefore, FAS is considered to treat obesity. Potential new targets . 茯 brick tea water extract can inhibit SREBP-1c and The expression of FAS, in order to achieve the purpose of reducing fat . Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in lipids Fat cell differentiation, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, etc. It plays an important role in the pathophysiological process. Studies have shown that PPAR-γ is Coordinate the accumulation, type and function of regulatory T cells in visceral adipose tissue Key molecules of energy . Song Lubin et al  chose 茯 brick tea, tile tea, Green brick tea, black brick tea, Liubao tea, Pu’er tea, 6 kinds of black tea, Tea, rice brick tea as a control, study black tea on PPAR-γ and PPAR-δ Activation ability of two nuclear receptor models. The results show that in all black In tea, the strongest activation of PPAR nuclear receptors is 茯 brick tea. And the PPAR nuclear receptor activating component can be dip with hot water. Out.
Although 沱 tea also has a strong induction of PPAR-γ nuclear receptors Use, but its active ingredients are not easily leached by hot water, with stronger fat Solubility. Therefore, 沱 tea has the ability to activate PPAR nuclear receptors. The ingredients may not be the same as the ingredients in black tea. with a component of Pu’er tea that has the ability to activate PPAR-δ nuclear receptors Also has a strong fat solubility. Therefore, 茯 brick tea in the fat-reducing weight loss, tune. Special effects in terms of glucose metabolism, anti-atherosclerosis, etc. use. Fu Donghe et al  used the extract of brick tea extract and separated Chinese Herbal Medicine Chinese ·1454· Traditional and Herbal Drugs Vol. 48 No. 7 April 2017 A series of high-throughput screening studies on six monomeric compounds Also found that 茯 brick tea has activation of PPAR-γ and PPAR-δ ability. Li et al  study shows that 茯 brick tea water extract can also lure PPAR-α expression is induced. Farnesol X receptor (FXR), liver X receptor (LXR), etc. Also plays an important role in lipid metabolism, and 茯 brick tea to FXR And LXR has an activation [44, 46]. Du Wanhong et al  found the flower roll Tea extract can reduce hyperlipidemia rats and high-fat rabbits Significant improvement in TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and TG levels High fat-induced vascular endothelial diastolic dysfunction and erythrocyte deformation Ability to reduce the area of aortic atherosclerotic plaque in rabbits and reduce plasma Symmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) The amount is dose dependent. Xiao Wenjun et al  made the brick tea into a drink The body was tested for 13 days at a dose of 1 000 mL/d per person. Fruit showed a significant decrease in TG in subjects, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) The rise is significant, the TC decline is extremely significant, and the LDL is also down, but no Significant differences. None of the subjects had adverse reactions, blood routine, There were no abnormal changes in blood sugar, liver and kidney function. Fu Donghe et al  selected 10 The subjects drank 茯 brick tea for 120 days at a dose of 5g/L per person. LDL, TG and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) in current subjects Significantly lower, while HDL increased significantly. Its mechanism may be related to EGCG, ECG and gallic acid (GA) on FXR, LXR and peroxide Regulation of the 2 subtypes of the proliferator-activated receptor PPAR.
4.2 Anti-tumor effect
茯Brick tea on human colon cancer cells HCT-8, gastric cancer cells SGC-7901 has significant inhibition , which is isolated Flavonoid glycoside A (camellikaempferoside A) It has certain effects on human breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Antiproliferative activity with IC50 of 7.83 and 19.16 μmol/L, respectively . Studies have shown that cancer has a significant relationship with FAS, FAS is likely to be a new way to control cancer. Brick tea Water extract can inhibit FAS expression, so its anti-tumor mechanism may Related to this . Epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances FAS Expression, EGCG and theaflavin-3,3′-digallate (TF-3) Activation of protein kinase B (Akt) at protein and mRNA levels The signaling pathway prevents the transcription factor Sp-1 from binding to the site. EGCG And TF-3 significantly inhibited EGF-induced lipid biosynthesis and fine Cell proliferation. Down regulation of EGF receptor/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase The (PI3K)/Akt/Sp-1 signal transduction pathway inhibits FAS expression .
4.3 Prevention and treatment of diarrhea
High- and medium-dose groups of 茯Brick tea have better resistance to senna and castor The effect of oil-induced diarrhea in mice and the effect of berberine-positive control group Quite, while the low dose group is not effective. In addition, brick tea is high and low Magnesium sulfate-induced mice in the dose group and berberine-positive control group The effect of diarrhea is quite . High and low dose groups of 茯 brick tea can promote the push of small intestine in normal mice Into the exercise, which is more effective in the high-dose group (5 g/kg) To be significant. Intestinal propulsion inhibition caused by 茯 brick tea to atropine sulfate It has antagonistic effect, and the effect of the high dose group is more significant. High dose 茯 Brick tea is resistant to neostigmine mesylate Significant inhibition, while the low dose group is not obvious . Xiao Lizheng The study  also got the same conclusion, 茯 brick tea can restore the intestines Rhythmic exercise plays a role in regulating gastrointestinal motility. 茯Brick tea extract for Shigella, Salmonella, Escherichia coli Various diarrhea microorganisms have different degrees of inhibition [55-56]. High and medium dose (210, 105 mg/mL) 茯 brick tea can promote intestinal tract Growth of beneficial microorganisms (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus), inhibition The harmful microorganisms (E. coli, Enterococcus) proliferate. Senna The intestinal microbial disorder has an improvement effect, in which the lactobacillus is increased The impact of colonization is most pronounced . Wu Xianglan et al  also found that bricks Tea makes ampicillin-induced intestinal flora disorder dysfunction in the intestine of mice The amount of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus was significantly increased, and the high dose group was basically Reverted to the normal group. Intestinal flora disorder mice Amount and blood of secretory immunoglobulin (sIgA) in the small intestinal mucus The amount of interleukin-2 (IL-2), total protein and albumin in Qingzhong Reduced, while ig 茯 brick tea extract can improve the above phenomenon, indicating 茯 Brick tea can affect the secretion of sIgA in the small intestinal mucosa by regulating IL-2.
4.4 Liver protection
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be induced by cellular oxidative stress Lead to apoptosis and even lead to necrosis, excessive ROS in the liver
Will cause damage to liver cells, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) as The peroxide decomposing enzymes that are widely present in the body can be effectively removed. The amount of ROS. Studies have shown that the liver model homogenate of female rats in the liquor model group The amount of SOD and GSH-Px in the medium is significantly reduced, while drinking 茯 Brick tea can effectively improve the reduction of both, while adding dimensions Biotin C can get better results. In addition, a large number of drinking parties Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) The level rises, and the rise of both is a problem with liver function. 1 important indicator. Drinking 茯 brick tea for AST caused by heavy drinking The increase in the amount has an inhibitory effect, while the increase in the amount of ALT does not. Has a significant impact . The amount of TG in hepatocytes can objectively reflect liver cell fat The degree of degeneration, excessive accumulation of TG in the liver will increase fatty liver risk. The 茯 brick tea extract was significantly reduced compared with the natural recovery group. The effect of TG concentration in hepatocytes . Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs Vol. 48 No. 7 April 2017·1455·
4.5 Other effects
茯Brick tea can improve the immune function of mice, and it is in a certain amount. Effective relationship. Low, medium and high doses of 茯 brick tea water extract can be improved The phagocytosis of monocyte-macrophages enhances non-specific immunity in mice Epidemic function . Flavonoid glycoside component isolated from 茯 brick tea (camellikaempferoside B) by reducing the activity of beta secretase Inhibition of the formation and aggregation of beta amyloid (Aβ) Aβ1-42 oligomer binding prevents the transformation of its conformation to the β sheet structure, Thereby inhibiting the production of toxic Aβ. At the same time, the compound can block Nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, leading to Aβ Neuronal death, ROS production, and release of inflammatory factors Improvement effect , suggesting that this ingredient has potential for Alzheimer’s disease Therapeutic effect.
In recent years, the chemical formation of Anhua black tea, especially 茯 brick tea The research on the fraction and pharmacological activity is getting deeper and deeper. Special process leads to Chemical composition and pharmacology of Anhua Black Tea compared with black tea from other producing areas There is a certain difference in activity, and the fermentation process makes the black tea free. The amount of amino acids and water-soluble sugars increases, while the catechins The amount is also lowered by the reaction such as oxidation, and is converted into other components. research
Studies have shown that the changes in the above ingredients of black tea from different producing areas are poor.
Different, but the specific composition differences are especially the fermentation process and the brick tea The compositional changes of flowering process need to be further systematic the study. Current research indicates that black tea has some different pharmacological activities between Have the same target, such as FAS in regulating blood lipids and anti-tumor All play a key role, so aim at the specific target of Anhua black tea Point research provides to expand the scope of research on the health activity of Anhua black tea A certain basis, more health care functions of Anhua Black Tea need further In-depth study. In addition, many active studies use black tea water extract as a research pair. Elephant, its specific active ingredients and mechanism of action need further research Research. Other studies have shown that EGCG is oxidative stress caused by hyperglycemia Damage has a protective effect , the amount of EGCG in the black tea processing Medium reduction, while brick tea can activate PPAR-γ, while PPAR-γ
It plays an important role in glycolipid metabolism , so whether black tea is Able to exhibit anti-diabetic activity and its related pharmacodynamic basis It is also a direction that needs to be studied in the future.
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